C++ | OOPs Concepts

Updated: Jun 11

Object Oriented Programming may be a paradigm that gives many concepts like inheritance, data binding, polymorphism etc.

The programming paradigm where everything is represented as an object is understood as truly object-oriented programming language .

Small talk is considered as the first truly object-oriented programming language.


OOPs (Object Oriented Programming System)


Object means a true word entity like pen, chair, table etc.

Object-Oriented Programming may be a methodology or paradigm to style a program using classes and objects. It simplifies the software development and maintenance by providing some concepts:

  • Object

  • Class

  • Inheritance

  • Polymorphism

  • Abstraction

  • Encapsulation


Object:


Any entity that has state and behavior is understood as an object. For example: chair, pen, table, keyboard, bike etc. It can be physical and logical.


Class:


Collection of objects is called class. It is a logical entity.


Inheritance:


When one object acquires all the properties and behaviors of parent object i.e. known as inheritance. It provides code reusability. It is used to achieve runtime polymorphism.


Polymorphism:


When one task is performed by alternative ways i.e. known as polymorphism. For example: to convince the customer differently, to draw something e.g. shape or rectangle etc.

In C++, we use Function overloading and performance overriding to realize polymorphism.


Abstraction:


Hiding internal details and showing functionality is understood as abstraction. For example: call,we do not know the interior processing.

In C++, we use abstract class and interface to realize abstraction


Encapsulation:


Binding (or wrapping) code and data together into a single unit is understood as encapsulation. For example: capsule, it is wrapped with different medicines.


Advantage of OOPs over Procedure-oriented programming language-

  1. OOPs makes development and maintenance easier where as in Procedure-oriented programming language it's tough to manage if code grows as project size grows.

  2. OOPs provide data hiding whereas in Procedure-oriented programming language a worldwide data are often accessed from anywhere.

  3. OOPs provide ability to simulate real-world event far more effectively. We can provide the answer of real word problem if we are using the Object-Oriented programming language.

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